Biology Official Model Paper 2022 Subjective Question Solutions
Q.1. What do you mean by Mendelian disorder ?
Ans – Mendelian Disorders can be defined as a type of genetic disorder that arises due to alterations in one gene or as a result of abnormalities in the genome. Such a condition can be seen from birth and be found based on family ancestry utilizing the genealogical record.
Q.2. What is the theory of recapitulation ?
Ans – It is a historical hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from fertilization to gestation or hatching (ontogeny), goes through stages resembling or representing successive adult stages in the evolution of the animal’s remote ancestors.
Q.3. Explain asexual reproduction in an organism with the help of example.
Ans – Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction in which only one parent is involved to reproduce offspring.
In asexual reproduction,the offsprings produced are exact copies of their parents.
Example – Budding in Yeast.
Q.4. Write a note on DNA polymerase.
Ans – DNA polymerases are a group of enzymes that are used to make copies of DNA templates, essentially used in DNA replication mechanisms. These enzymes make new copies of DNA from existing templates and also function by repairing the synthesized DNA to prevent mutations. DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of the phosphodiester bond which makes up the backbone of DNA molecules.
Q.5. What do you understand by Ex-situ conservation ?
Ans – Ex-situ conservation means the conservation of species outside their natural habitats. It involves the transfer of genetic material away from the location where it is found. It ensures easy accessibility of germplasm for evaluation and utilization.
Q.6. What is cocaine ? From which plant it is obtained ?
Ans – Cocaine is a highly addictive and illegal stimulant that is made from the leaves of the coca plant, which is native to South America.
Q.7. What is oncogenesis ?
Ans – Oncogenesis is the process through which healthy cells become transformed into cancer cells. It is characterized by a series of genetic and cellular changes, including oncogene activation, that lead the cell to divide in an uncontrolled manner.
Q.8. How is smog formed ?
Ans – Smog forms when pollutants are released into the air. The pollutants are formed both naturally and by humans, however, the human-induced pollutants are of most concern due to the magnitude of pollutants produced by the burning and extraction of fossil fuels, which are known to cause extreme health effects.
Q.9. What do you understand by biomagnifications ?
Ans – Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is any concentration of a toxin, such as pesticides, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
Q.10. Define Species diversity.
Ans – Species diversity is defined as the number of different species present in an ecosystem and relative abundance of each of those species.
Q.11. What is genetic drift ?
Ans – Genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution. It refers to random fluctuations in the frequencies of alleles from generation to generation due to chance events.
Q.12. What is DNA fingerprinting ?
Ans – DNA fingerprinting. The process of comparison of DNA from different sources to establish the identity is called DNA fingerprinting. DNA fingerprinting involves identifying differences in some specific regions in DNA sequence called as repetitive DNA.
Q.15. What is Gel Electrophoresis ?
Ans – Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory method used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size. In gel electrophoresis, the molecules to be separated are pushed by an electrical field through a gel that contains small pores.